We report experiments on proton radiation-enhanced self- and boron (B) diffusion in germanium (Ge) for temperatures between 515 ∘ C and 720 ∘ C. Modeling of the experimental diffusion profiles measured by means of secondary ion mass spectrometry is achieved on the basis of the Frenkel pair reaction and the interstitialcy and dissociative diffusion mechanisms. The numerical simulations ascertain concentrations of Ge interstitials and B-interstitial pairs that deviate by several orders of magnitude from their thermal equilibrium values. The dominance of self-interstitial related defects under irradiation leads to an enhanced self- and B diffusion in Ge. Analysis of the experimental profiles yields data for the diffusion of self-interstitials (I ) and the thermal equilibrium concentration of BI pairs in Ge. The temperature dependence of these quantities provides the migration enthalpy of I and formation enthalpy of BI that are compared with recent results of atomistic calculations. The behavior of self- and B diffusion in Ge under concurrent annealing and irradiation is strongly affected by the property of the Ge surface to hinder the annihilation of self-interstitials. The limited annihilation efficiency of the Ge surface can be caused by donor-type surface states favored under vacuum annealing, but the physical origin remains unsolved.
Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 2013, Vol 87, Issue 11