1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Division of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 University of Copenhagen4 Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark5 Sapienza University of Rome
Fruit and vegetable consumption has been associated with several health benefits; however the mechanisms are largely unknown at the biochemical level. Our research aims to investigate whether plasma metabolome profiling can reflect biological effects after feeding rats with raw apple by using an untargeted UPLC–ESI– TOF–MS based metabolomics approach in both positive and negative mode. Eighty young male rats were randomised into groups receiving daily 0, 5 or 10 g fresh apple slices, respectively, for 13 weeks. During weeks 3–6 some of the animals were receiving 4 mg/ml 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) once a week. Plasma samples were taken at the end of the intervention and among all groups, about half the animals were 12 h fasted. An initial ANOVA-simultaneous component analysis with a three-factor or two-factor design was employed in order to isolate potential metabolic variations related to the consumption of fresh apples. Partial least squaresdiscriminant analysis was then applied in order to select discriminative features between plasma metabolites in control versus apple fed rats and partial least squares modelling to reveal possible dose response. The findings indicate that in laboratory rats apple feeding may alter the microbial amino acid fermentation, lowering toxic metabolites from amino acids metabolism and increasing metabolism into more protective products. It may also delay lipid and amino acid catabolism, gluconeogenesis, affect other features of the transition from the postprandial to the fasting state and affect steroid metabolism by suppressing the plasma level of stress corticosteroids, certain mineralocorticoids and oxidised bile acid metabolites. Several new hypotheses regarding the cause of health effects from apple intake can be generated from this study for further testing in humans.