Design-dependent loads related to boundary shape, such as pressure and convection loads, have been a challenging issue in optimization. Isogeometric analysis, where the analysis model has smooth boundaries described by spline functions can handle design-dependent loads with ease. In the present study, shape optimization based on isogeometric analysis is applied to the Stokes flow problems such as minimizing energy dissipation and drag force. The drag force objective is based on accurate integration of boundary pressures. Local control point insertion schemes are employed for accurate representation of geometry in an adaptive manner.
Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 2013, Vol 48, p. 965-977