Photovoltaic tandem technology has the potential to boost the power conversion efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices. Here, a reliable and efficient fully solution-processed intermediate layer (IML) consisting of ZnO and neutralized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is demonstrated for series-connected multi-junction organic solar cells (OSCs). Drying at 80 °C in air is sufficient for this solution-processed IML to obtain excellent functionality and reliability, which allow the use of most of high performance donor materials in the tandem structure. An open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.56 V is obtained for single-junction OSCs based on a low band-gap polymer, while multi-junction OSCs based on the same absorber material deliver promising fill factor values along with fully additive Voc as the number of junctions increase. Optical and electrical simulations, which are reliable and promising guidelines for the design and investigation of multi-junction OSCs, are discussed. The outcome of optical and electrical simulations is in excellent agreement with the experimental data, indicating the outstanding efficiency and functionality of this solution-processed IML. The demonstration of this efficient, solution-processed IML represents a convenient way for facilitating fabrication of multi-junction OSCs to achieve high power conversion efficiency.
Advanced Energy Materials, 2013, Vol 3, Issue 12, p. 1597-1605