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1 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet 2 National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev 3 Polish Academy of Sciences 4 University of Warsaw 5 Eotvos Loránd Geophysical Inst. of Hungary 6 University of Aberdeen 7 University of Helsinki 8 State Geophysical Enterprise Ukrgeofizika 9 Polish Academy of Sciences 10 University of Warsaw 11 University of Aberdeen 12 Geology, Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2.4-3.7km/s), 17-20km thick upper crystalline crust (5.9-6.3km/s) and an up to 3km thick lower crustal layer (Vp=6.4km/s). In the central part of the Carpathians, a 10-24km thick uppermost part of the crust with Vp≤6.0km/s may correspond to sedimentary rocks of different ages; several high velocity bodies (Vp=5.35, 5.95 and 6.05km/s) within the sedimentary flysch sequences may represent volcanic sequences. The Moho depth changes from 25km to 45km over ca. 100km distance beneath the Carpathians, west of TESZ. The cratonic crust has a typical three layer structure with a pronounced thickening of the lower crust towards the Ukrainian Shield, where a high velocity lower crust (Vp>7.2km/s) is observed. Two low-velocity lenses in the upper crust of the EEC are interpreted beneath major sedimentary troughs (Lviv and Volyn-Podolsk). Mantle reflectors are observed at depths of ~45km and ~75km below the PB and 10-20km below the Moho in the EEC. Sub-Moho (Pn) velocities increase from 8.0km/s beneath the PB to 8.1km/s beneath the Carpathians and to ~8.3km/s beneath the EEC. S-waves of acceptable quality are recorded in the EEC; their signal-to-noise ratios increase towards the Ukrainian Shield. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Tectonophysics, 2013, Vol 608, p. 1049-1072
Carpathians; Crust; East European craton; Pannonian basin; Seismic modelling; Upper mantle
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