Primary Failure of tooth Eruption (PFE) is a non-syndromic disorder which can be caused by mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 gene (PTH1R). Traditionally, the disorder has been identified clinically based on post-emergent failure of eruption of permanent molars. However, patients with PTH1R mutations will not benefit from surgical and/or orthodontic treatment and it is therefore clinically important to establish whether a given failure of tooth eruption is caused by a PTH1R defect or not. We analyzed the PTH1R gene in six patients clinically diagnosed with PFE, all of which had undergone surgical and/or orthodontic interventions, and identified novel PTH1R mutations in all. Four of the six mutations were predicted to abolish correct mRNA maturation either through introduction of premature stop codons (c.947C>A and c.1082G>A), or by altering correct mRNA splicing (c.544-26_544-23del and c.989G>T). The latter was validated by transfection of minigenes. The six novel mutations expand the mutation spectrum for PFE from eight to 14 pathogenic mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in PTH1R are also associated with recessively inherited Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. We compiled all published PTH1R mutations and identified a mutational overlap between Blomstrand chondrodysplasia and PFE. The results suggest that a genetic approach to preclinical diagnosis will have important implication for surgical and orthodontic treatment of patients with failure of tooth eruption.