The Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway constitute the fulcrum in many vital cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, proliferation, and regulatory immune functions. Various cytokines, growth factors, and protein tyrosine kinases communicate through the JAK/STAT pathway and regulate the transcription of numerous genes. In addition to their critical roles in a plethora of key cellular activities, the JAK/STAT signaling pathways also have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), especially since a JAK inhibitor recently has been shown to be effective in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of this review is to highlight the recent findings on the regulatory mechanism of JAK/STAT signaling pathways and to reveal the evolving comprehension of their interface which might be of interest for clinicians involved in IBD therapy. Further, it is described how these signaling pathways have been exploited for the development of promising novel JAK inhibitors with anti-inflammatory effects verified in clinical trials.