Abdallah, Morsi8; Larsen, Nanna4; Grove, Jakob9; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent4; Thorsen, Poul6; Mortensen, Erik Lykke7; Hougaard, David M.4
1 Department of Public Health - Department of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Health, Aarhus University2 Department of Biomedicine - Department of Human Genetics, Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University3 Bioinformatics Research Centre (BiRC), Science and Technology, Aarhus University4 Statens Serum Institute, Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Immunology, Copenhagen5 Department of Biomedicine - Forskning og uddannelse, Øst, Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University6 unknown7 Institut for Folkesundhedsvidenskab8 Department of Public Health - Department of Epidemiology, Department of Public Health, Health, Aarhus University9 Department of Biomedicine - Forskning og uddannelse, Øst, Department of Biomedicine, Health, Aarhus University
Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze cytokine profiles in amniotic fluid (AF) samples of children developing Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and controls, adjusting for maternal autoimmune disorders and maternal infections during pregnancy. Methods: AF samples of 331 ASD cases and 698 controls were analyzed for inflammatory cytokines using Luminex xMAP technology utilizing a historic birth cohort. Clinical data were retrieved from nationwide registers, and case-control differences in AF cytokine levels were assessed using chi-square tests, logistic and tobit regression models. Results: Overall, individuals with ASD had significantly elevated AF levels of TNF-α and TNF-β compared to controls. Analyzing individuals diagnosed only with ICD-10 codes yielded significantly elevated levels of IL-4, IL-10, TNF-α and TNF-β in ASD patients. Restricting analysis to infantile autism cases yielded significantly elevated levels of IL-4, TNF-α and TNF-β compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Elevated levels of IL-6 and IL-5 were found in individuals with other childhood psychiatric disorders (OCPD) when compared to controls with no psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusions: AF samples of individuals with ASD or OCPD showed differential cytokine profiles compared to frequency-matched controls. Further studies to examine the specificity of the reported cytokine profiles in ASD and OCPD are required.
World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2013, Vol 14, Issue 7, p. 528-538