Purpose: DNA methylation is associated with bladder cancer and these modifications could serve as useful biomarkers. FGFR3 mutations are present in 60% to 70% of non–muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). Low-grade bladder cancer recurs in more than 50% of patients. The aim of this study is to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a urine assay for the diagnosis of recurrences in patients with a previous primary NMIBC G1/G2 by using cystoscopy as the reference standard. Experimental Design: We selected eight CpG islands (CGI) methylated in bladder cancer from our earlier genome-wide study. Sensitivity of the CGIs for recurrences detection was investigated on a test set of 101 preTUR urines. Specificity was determined on 70 urines from healthy males aged more than 50 years. A 3-plex assay for the best combination was developed and validated on an independent set of 95 preTUR, recurrence free, and nonmalignant urines (n = 130). Results: The 3-plex assay identified recurrent bladder cancer in voided urine with a sensitivity of 74% in the validation set. In combination with the FGFR3 mutation assay, a sensitivity of 79% was reached (specificity of 77%). Sensitivity of FGFR3 and cytology was 52% and 57%, respectively. Conclusion: The combination of methylation and FGFR3 assays efficiently detects recurrent bladder cancer without the need for stratification of patients regarding methylation/mutation status of the primary tumor. We conclude that the sensitivity of this combination is in the same range as cystoscopy and paves the way for a subsequent study that investigates a modified surveillance protocol consisting of the urine test followed by cystoscopy only when the urine test is positive.
Clinical Cancer Research, 2013, Vol 19, Issue 17, p. 4760-9