Proton pump inhibitors have become the mainstay of medical treatment of acid-related disorders. Long-term use is becoming increasingly common, in some cases without a proper indication. A large number of mainly observational studies on a very wide range of possible associations have been published in the past decade and are critically reviewed in this article and the existing evidence is evaluated and translated into possible clinical consequences. Based on the existing evidence the benefits of PPI treatment seem to outweigh potential risks in the large majority of patients especially if PPI use is based on a relevant indication. The concern for complications should primarily be directed at elderly, malnourished with significant co-morbidity. In this population an increased risk for enteric infections, fractures and nutritional deficiencies might have clinical consequences and should lead to a careful evaluation of the indication for PPI treatment.
Best Practice and Research. Clinical Gastroenterology, 2013, Vol 27, Issue 3, p. 443-54
Drug Interactions; Fractures, Bone; Gastroesophageal Reflux; Humans; Malabsorption Syndromes; Proton Pump Inhibitors; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review