the premotor cortex does both during bimanual coordination, while the cerebellum monitors the behavioral instability of symmetric movements
The underlying neural mechanisms of a perceptual bias for in-phase bimanual coordination movements are not well understood. In the present study, we measured brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects during a task, where subjects performed bimanual index finger adduction-abduction movements symmetrically or in parallel with real-time congruent or incongruent visual feedback of the movements. One network, consisting of bilateral superior and middle frontal gyrus and supplementary motor area (SMA), was more active when subjects performed parallel movements, whereas a different network, involving bilateral dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex, and SMA, was more active when subjects viewed parallel movements while performing either symmetrical or parallel movements. Correlations between behavioral instability and brain activity were present in right lateral cerebellum during the symmetric movements. These findings suggest the presence of different error-monitoring mechanisms for symmetric and parallel movements. The results indicate that separate areas within PMd and SMA are responsible for both perception and performance of ongoing movements and that the cerebellum supports symmetric movements by monitoring deviations from the stable coordination pattern.
Experimental Brain Research, 2013, Vol 230, Issue 1, p. 101-115