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1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark 2 Division of Industrial Food Research, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark 3 National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark 4 University of Veterinary Medicine 5 Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark
Wound healing is a complex and well-organized process in which physiological factors and immune mechanisms are involved. A number of different immune modulators have been found to enhance the non-specific defence system in vertebrates, among which β-glucans are the most powerful and extensively investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological impact of two different commercially available β glucan containing products on the wound healing process in carp. Throughout a two week experiment fish were kept either untreated (control), or in water supplemented with the two different types of β-glucans. The wound healing process was monitored using a multispectral visualisation system. The correlation between wound closure and immune response was investigated by measuring the gene expression patterns of IL-1b, IL-6 family member M17, IL-8 and Muc5b, and measurement of production of radical oxygen species. PAMPs/DAMPs stimulation caused by the wounding and or β-glucans resulted in an inflammatory response by activating IL-1b, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 and differences in the expression pattern were seen depending on stimuli. IL-1b, IL-6 family member M17 and IL-8 were activated in all wounds regardless of treatment. Expression of all three interleukins was highly up regulated in control wounded muscle already at day 1 post-wounding and decreased at subsequent time-points. The reverse was the case with control wounded skin, where expression increased from day 1 through day 14. The results for the β-glucan treated wounds were more complex. The images showed significantly faster wound contraction in both treated groups compared to the control. The obtained results clearly demonstrated that a β glucan enriched bath promotes the closure of wounds in common carp and induce a local change in cytokine expression. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology, 2013, Vol 35, Issue 3, p. 998-1006
Carp; Cyprinus carpio L.; β-glucan; Wound healing; Gene expression
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