Hovgaard, Tobias Gybel4; Larsen, Lars F. S.5; Jørgensen, John Bagterp6; Boyd, Stephen8
1 Center for Energy Resources Engineering, Center, Technical University of Denmark2 Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark3 Scientific Computing, Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Technical University of Denmark4 Department of Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark5 Vestas Technology R&D6 Copenhagen Center for Health Technology, Center, Technical University of Denmark7 Stanford University8 Stanford University
We consider the control of a wind power plant, possibly consisting of many individual wind turbines. The goal is to maximize the energy delivered to the power grid under very strict grid requirements to power quality. We define an extremely low power output gradient and demonstrate how decentralized energy storage in the turbines’ inertia combined with a central storage unit or deferrable consumers can be utilized to achieve this goal at a minimum cost. We propose a variation on model predictive control to incorporate predictions of wind speed. Due to the aerodynamics of the turbines the model contains nonconvex terms. To handle this nonconvexity, we propose a sequential convex optimization method, which typically converges in fewer than 10 iterations. We demonstrate our method in simulations with various wind scenarios and prices for energy storage. These simulations show substantial improvements in terms of limiting the power ramp rates (disturbance rejection) at the cost of very little power. This capability is critical to help balance and stabilize the future power grid with a large penetration of intermittent renewable energy sources.
2013 European Control Conference (ecc), 2013, p. 4071-4076
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12th European Control Conference (ECC 2013)European Control Conference