Mensink, G. B. M.3; Fletcher, R.4; Gurinovic, M.13; Huybrechts, I.14; Lafay, L.7; Serra-Majem, L.8; Szponar, L.9; Tetens, Inge1; Verkaik-Kloosterman, J.15; Baka, A.11; Stephen, A. M.12
1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Division of Nutrition, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 Robert Koch Institute4 Kellogg Europe5 University of Belgrade6 Ghent University7 French National Cancer Institute8 University of Barcelona9 National Food and Nutrition Institute10 National Institute of Public Health and the Environment11 International Life Sciences Institute – ILSI Europe12 MRC Human Nutrition Research13 University of Belgrade14 Ghent University15 National Institute of Public Health and the Environment
Achieving an understanding of the extent of micronutrient adequacy across Europe is a major challenge. The main objective of the present study was to collect and evaluate the prevalence of low micronutrient intakes of different European countries by comparing recent nationally representative dietary survey data from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Dietary intake information was evaluated for intakes of Ca, Cu, I, Fe, Mg, K, Se, Zn and the vitamins A, B1, B2, B6, B12, C, D, E and folate. The mean and 5th percentile of the intake distributions were estimated for these countries, for a number of defined sex and age groups. The percentages of those with intakes below the lower reference nutrient intake and the estimated average requirement were calculated. Reference intakes were derived from the UK and Nordic Nutrition Recommendations. The impact of dietary supplement intake as well as inclusion of apparently low energy reporters on the estimates was evaluated. Except for vitamin D, the present study suggests that the current intakes of vitamins from foods lead to low risk of low intakes in all age and sex groups. For current minerals, the study suggests that the risk of low intakes is likely to appear more often in specific age groups. In spite of the limitations of the data, the present study provides valuable new information about micronutrient intakes across Europe and the likelihood of inadequacy country by country.
British Journal of Nutrition, 2013, Vol 110, Issue 4, p. 755-773
Micronutrients; Inadequacies; Dietary surveys; Nutrient requirements; Europe