Pruden, Amy2; Larsson, D.G. Joakim14; Amézquita, Alejandro4; Collignon, Peter5; Brandt, Kristian Koefoed15; Graham, David W.6; Lazorchak, James M.16; Suzuki, Satoru8; Silley, Peter9; Snape, Jason R.10; Topp, Edward11; Zhang, Tong17; Zhu, Yong-Guan13
1 Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Virginia Tech3 University of Gothenburg4 Unilever-Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre5 Australian National University6 Newcastle University7 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency8 Ehime University9 MB Consult Limited10 Brixham Environmental Laboratory11 Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada12 University of Hong Kong13 Chinese Academy of Sciences14 University of Gothenburg15 Microbial Ecology and Biotechnology, Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet16 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency17 University of Hong Kong
Background: There is growing concern worldwide about the role of polluted soil and water environments in the development and dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Objective: Our aim in this study was to identify management options for reducing the spread of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance determinants via environmental pathways, with the ultimate goal of extending the useful life span of antibiotics. We also examined incentives and disincentives for action. Methods: We focused on management options with respect to limiting agricultural sources; treatment of domestic, hospital, and industrial wastewater; and aquaculture. Discussion: We identified several options, such as nutrient management, runoff control, and infrastructure upgrades. Where appropriate, a cross-section of examples from various regions of the world is provided. The importance of monitoring and validating effectiveness of management strategies is also highlighted. Finally, we describe a case study in Sweden that illustrates the critical role of communication to engage stakeholders and promote action. Conclusions: Environmental releases of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria can in many cases be reduced at little or no cost. Some management options are synergistic with existing policies and goals. The anticipated benefit is an extended useful life span for current and future antibiotics. Although risk reductions are often difficult to quantify, the severity of accelerating worldwide morbidity and mortality rates associated with antibiotic resistance strongly indicate the need for action.
Environmental Health Perspectives, 2013, Vol 121, Issue 8, p. 878-885