Because of the importance of the Wnt pathway in the development and maintenance of both adipose and bone tissue, we wanted to evaluate the involvement of WNT10B, a Wnt pathway activator, in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis in humans. Genetic association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters as well as bone mineral density (BMD) measurements was analysed in two independent populations. The first is a population of 1,228 Danish men (702 aged 20-29 years; 532 aged 60-74 years) from the Odense Androgen Study (OAS), which was designed as a cross-sectional, population-based study. The second population, called SIBLOS, includes 922 Belgian men (34 ± 5 years old) and contains siblings selected from over 500 families. Four tagSNPs (rs833840, rs833841, rs10875902 and rs4018511) that capture variation of ten SNPs (MAF > 5 %) in a 15.2 kb region spanning the WNT10B gene and its flanking regions were genotyped. Although no association with body mass index was found, we found all tagSNPs to be associated with BMD parameters (BMD whole body, total hip and femoral neck) and height in the OAS population. The association of rs10875902 was most prominent (nominal p = 0.012) and confirmed a previously shown negative effect on BMD. No significant associations were observed in the SIBLOS population. In the present study, no association between WNT10B polymorphisms and adiposity parameters was found. However, our results clearly illustrate a role for WNT10B variants in determining human BMD. The effect of WNT10B polymorphisms on height should be evaluated in additional populations.