Kim, J. E.14; Lim, H.4; Nam, J. W.15; Brandt, Søren1; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl1; Castro-Tirado, A. J.6; Chen, P.15; Choi, H. S.7; Grossan, B.8; Huang, M. A.9; Jeong, S.16; Jung, A.14; Kim, M. B.16; Kim, S.-W.11; Lee, J.16; Linder, E. V.14; Liu, T.-C.15; Na, G. W.14; Panasyuk, M. I.12; Park, I. H.16; Ripa, J.16; Reglero, V.13; Smoot, G. F.14; Svertilov, S.12; Vedenkin, N.12; Yashin, I.12
1 National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Astrophysics, National Space Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 Ewha Womans University4 Dongnam Institute of Radiological & Medical Sciences5 National Taiwan University6 Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía7 Korea Institute of Industrial Technology8 University of California at Berkeley9 National United University10 Sungkyunkwan University11 Yonsei University12 Moscow Lomonosov State University13 Universidad de Valencia14 Ewha Womans University15 National Taiwan University16 Sungkyunkwan University
The Slewing Mirror Telescope (SMT) was proposed for rapid response to prompt UV/optical photons from Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs). The SMT is a key component of the Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory (UFFO)-pathfinder, which will be launched aboard the Lomonosov spacecraft at the end of 2013. The SMT utilizes a motorized mirror that slews rapidly forward to its target within a second after triggering by an X-ray coded mask camera, which makes unnecessary a reorientation of the entire spacecraft. Subsequent measurement of the UV/optical is accomplished by a 10 cm aperture Ritchey-Chrètien telescope and the focal plane detector of Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD). The ICCD is sensitive to UV/optical photons of 200–650 nm in wavelength by using a UV-enhanced S20 photocathode and amplifies photoelectrons at a gain of 104–106 in double Micro-Channel Plates. These photons are read out by a Kodak KAI-0340 interline CCD sensor and a CCD Signal Processor with 10-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter. Various control clocks for CCD readout are implemented using a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The SMT readout is in charge of not only data acquisition, storage and transfer, but also control of the slewing mirror, the ICCD high voltage adjustments, power distribution, and system monitoring by interfacing to the UFFO-pathfinder. These functions are realized in the FPGA to minimize power consumption and to enhance processing time. The SMT readout electronics are designed and built to meet the spacecraft's constraints of power consumption, mass, and volume. The entire system is integrated with the SMT optics, as is the UFFO-pathfinder. The system has been tested and satisfies the conditions of launch and those of operation in space: those associated with shock and vibration and those associated with thermal and vacuum, respectively. In this paper, we present the SMT readout electronics: the design, construction, and performance, as well as the results of space environment test.