Hamad, Islam2; Hunter, A Christy3; Moghimi, Seyed Moien5
1 Nanomedicine, Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Madaba, Madaba, Jordan.3 b School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Manchester4 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet5 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
suppression of copolymer-mediated complement activation by elevated serum levels of HDL, LDL, and apolipoproteins AI and B-100
Poloxamer 407 is a non-ionic polyethylene oxide (PEO)/polypropylene oxide (PPO) block copolymer, which exhibits reversible thermogelation properties. Poloxamer gel has attracted many applications for controlled release of therapeutic agents as well as in surgical interventions such as controlled vascular occlusion. We show that poloxamer gel can trigger the complement system, which is an integral part of innate immunity and its inadvertent activation can induce clinically significant anaphylaxis. Complement activation by the poloxamer gel is through the alternative pathway, but material transformations from gel to the solution state further incite complement through calcium-sensitive pathways, where a role for C1q and antibodies has been eliminated. Poloxamer addition to plasma/serum (at levels above its critical micelle concentration, cmc) induced formation of large and diffused structures, which may have been responsible for triggering complement. Since poloxamer 407 administration has been reported to cause significant changes in plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels we further examined the role of lipoproteins in poloxamer-mediated complement activation. Our results show a protective role for elevated serum HDL, LDL and their predominant apolipoproteins (apoAI and apoB-100, respectively) on poloxamer-mediated complement activation. Electron microscopy investigations indicated formation of two distinct populations of new structures on mixing of poloxamer (at concentrations above its cmc) with human LDL, which could have played a significant role in regulating complement activation. These observations are in line with the suggested modulatory role of lipoproteins in host defence and inflammatory processes. A better understanding of block copolymer interaction with lipoproteins/apolipoproteins could improve the immune safety of surgical and therapeutic interventions requiring PEO/PPO block copolymers and may provide new insights for combinatorial design of multifunctional copolymers.
Journal of Controlled Release : Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society, 2013, Vol 170, Issue 2, p. 167-74