1 Section of Endocrinology Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 unknown4 Section of Endocrinology Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a currently incurable, epidemically growing global health concern. Contemporary symptomatic treatment targets acute and chronic metabolic consequences of relative or absolute insulin deficiency. Intensive multifactorial therapy is required to attenuate morbidity and mortality from late micro- and macrovascular complications, and despite current best clinical practice diabetes is still associated with shortened lifespan. There is an unmet need for interventions targeting pathogenetic mechanisms in diabetes, and the market for such therapies is huge. AREAS COVERED: Diabetes occurs when insulin secretion fails to meet tissue needs as a consequence of reduced functional beta-cell mass or reduced insulin sensitivity. Chronic inflammation contributes to beta-cell failure and insulin resistance. Molecular details are accumulating on the underlying cellular and molecular pathways. The testing of specific anti-inflammatory biologics targeting single pro-inflammatory cytokines has provided clinical proof-of-concept. EXPERT OPINION: IL-1 antagonists have so far failed to meet primary end points in recent-onset type 1 diabetes in Phase IIa, and promising Phase I and IIa trials in type 2 diabetes need confirmation in Phase III. The magnitude of response is variable and may relate to sub-phenotypes of these heterogeneous disorders. More studies are required to appreciate the potential of these drugs in diabetes.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs, 2013, Vol 22, Issue 8, p. 965-79
Animals; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1; Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2; Humans; Hypoglycemic Agents; Interleukin-1