Bile salts are present in the intestines of humans as well as the animals used during the development of pharmaceutical products. This review provides a short introduction into the physical chemical properties of bile salts, a description of the bile concentration and composition of bile in different animal species and an overview of the literature investigating the influence of bile salts on the in vivo performance of different compounds and drug formulations. Generally, there is a positive effect on bioavailability when bile is present in the gastro-intestinal tract, independent of the formulation systems, e.g. suspensions, solutions, cyclodextrin complexes or lipid based formulations, but a few exceptions have also been reported.
Journal review article
International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2013, Vol 453, Issue 1, p. 44-55