The role of distance, leakage and insulating affectors
Objective To estimate the area of cortex affecting the extracranial EEG signal. MethodsThe coherence between intra- and extracranial EEG channels were evaluated on at least 10min of spontaneous, awake data from seven patients admitted for epilepsy surgery work up. Results Cortical electrodes showed significant extracranial coherent signals in an area of approximately 150cm2 although the field of vision was probably only 31cm2 based on spatial averaging of intracranial channels taking into account the influence of the craniotomy and the silastic membrane of intracranial grids. Selecting the best cortical channels, it was possible to increase the coherence values compared to the single intracranial channel with highest coherence. The coherence seemed to increase linearly with an accumulation area up to 31cm2, where 50% of the maximal coherence was obtained accumulating from only 2cm2 (corresponding to one channel), and 75% when accumulating from 16cm2. Conclusion The skull is an all frequency spatial averager but dominantly high frequency signal attenuator. SignificanceAn empirical assessment of the actual area of cerebral sources generating the extracranial EEG provides better opportunities for clinical electroencephalographers to determine the location of origin of particular patterns in the EEG.
Clinical Neurophysiology, 2013, Vol 124, Issue 8, p. 1570-1577
Adolescent; Aged; Brain Mapping; Cerebral Cortex; Electrodes; Electroencephalography; Epilepsy; Female; Humans; Male; Subdural Space; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Intra- and extracranial electroencephalography; Transfer function; Skull; Breach rhythm; Coherence