1 Section of Surgery and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Section of Surgery and Internal Medicine, Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
Vitamin D is a dietary vitamin that can also be synthesized in adequate amounts from cholesterol in most mammals exposed to sunlight. Vitamin D has classical roles in calcium and phosphate metabolism, and thus the skeleton; however, this molecule also has nonclassical effects that might influence the function of the immune, cardiovascular and endocrine systems. Vitamin D deficiency, due to insufficient sunlight exposure, dietary uptake and/or abnormalities in its metabolism, has been associated with rheumatic diseases, and both the classical and nonclassical effects of vitamin D might be of relevance to patients with rheumatic disease. However, conclusive data from intervention trials demonstrating the relationship between vitamin D levels and pathogenetic processes separate from classical effects of this molecule are lacking. Furthermore, the majority of studies linking vitamin D to health outcomes, harmful or beneficial, are observational in nature, linking clinical events to vitamin D exposure or serum levels of vitamin D metabolites. Evidence from high quality, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trials should be obtained before vitamin D supplementation is recommended in the treatment of the many rheumatic conditions in which deficiency of this compound has been implicated. Herein, we review the evidence for vitamin D supplementation in the management of patients with rheumatic diseases.
Nature Reviews. Rheumatology, 2013, Vol 9, Issue 7, p. 411-422