Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) associates left ventricular (LV) dilatation and systolic dysfunction and is a major cause of heart failure and cardiac transplantation. LMNA gene encodes lamins A/C, proteins of the nuclear envelope. LMNA mutations cause DCM with conduction and/or rhythm defects. The pathomechanisms linking mutations to DCM remain to be elucidated. We investigated the phenotype and associated pathomechanisms of heterozygous Lmna(K32/) (Het) knock-in mice, which carry a human mutation. Het mice developed a cardiac-specific phenotype. Two phases, with two different pathomechanisms, could be observed that lead to the development of cardiac dysfunction, DCM and death between 35 and 70 weeks of age. In young Het hearts, there was a clear reduction in lamin A/C level, mainly due to the degradation of toxic K32-lamin. As a side effect, lamin A/C haploinsufficiency probably triggers the cardiac remodelling. In older hearts, when DCM has developed, the lamin A/C level was normalized and associated with increased toxic K32-lamin expression. Crossing our mice with the Ub(G76V)-GFP ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) reporter mice revealed a heart-specific UPS impairment in Het. While UPS impairment itself has a clear deleterious effect on engineered heart tissues force of contraction, it also leads to the nuclear aggregation of viral-mediated expression of K32-lamin. In conclusion, Het mice are the first knock-in Lmna model with cardiac-specific phenotype at the heterozygous state. Altogether, our data provide evidence that Het cardiomyocytes have to deal with major dilemma: mutant lamin A/C degradation or normalization of lamin level to fight the deleterious effect of lamin haploinsufficiency, both leading to DCM.
Human Molecular Genetics, 2013, Vol 22, Issue 15, p. 3152-3164
UBIQUITIN-PROTEASOME SYSTEM DREIFUSS MUSCULAR-DYSTROPHY LAMIN-A/C GENE CONDUCTION-SYSTEM TRANSGENIC MICE MOUSE MODEL DISEASE MUTATIONS LAMINOPATHIES EXPRESSION