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1 Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet 2 Protein Signaling Program, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet 3 Institut for Biokemi og Molekylær Biologi 4 Syddansk Universitet 5 Research Center 6 Department of Mechanical Engineering 7 Protein Signaling Program, Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
Genotoxic insults, such as ionizing radiation (IR), cause DNA damage that evokes a multifaceted cellular DNA damage response (DDR). DNA damage signaling events that control protein activity, subcellular localization, DNA binding, protein-protein interactions, etc. rely heavily on time-dependent posttranslational modifications (PT Ms). To complement our previous analysis of IR-induced temporal dynamics of nuclear phosphoproteome, we now identify a range of human nuclear proteins that are dynamically regulated by acetylation, and predominantly deacetylation, during IR-induced DDR by using mass spectrometry-based proteomic approaches. Apart from cataloging acetylation sites through SILAC proteomic analyses before IR and at 5 and 60 min after IR exposure of U2OS cells, we report that: (1) key components of the transcriptional machinery, such as EP 300 and CREBBP, are dynamically acetylated; (2) that nuclear acetyltransferases themselves are regulated, not on the protein abundance level, but by (de)acetylation; and (3) that the recently reported p53 co-activator and methyltransferase MLL3 is acetylated on five lysines during the DDR. For selected examples, protein immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting were used to assess lysine acetylation status and thereby validate the mass spectrometry data. We thus present evidence that nuclear proteins, including those known to regulate cellular functions via epigenetic modifications of histones, are regulated by (de)acetylation in a timely manner upon cell's exposure to genotoxic insults. Overall, these results present a resource of temporal profiles of a spectrum of protein acetylation sites during DDR and provide further insights into the highly dynamic nature of regulatory PT Ms that help orchestrate the maintenance of genome integrity. © 2013 Landes Bioscience.
Cell Cycle, 2013, Vol 12, Issue 11, p. 1688-1695
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