1 Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 unknown3 Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Mawe and tchoukoutou are two traditional fermented foods largely consumed in Benin, West Africa. Their preparations remain as a house art and they are the result of spontaneous fermentation processes. In this study, dynamics of the yeast populations occurring during spontaneous fermentations of mawe and tchoukoutou were investigated using both culture-dependent and -independent approaches. For each product, two productions were followed. Samples were taken at different fermentation times and yeasts were isolated, resulting in the collection of 177 isolates. They were identified by the PCR-DGGE technique followed by the sequencing of the D1/D2 domain of the 26S rRNA gene. The predominant yeast species identified were typed by rep-PCR. Candida krusei was the predominant yeast species in mawe fermentation followed by Candida glabrata and Kluyveromyces marxianus. Other yeast species were detected in lower numbers. The yeast successions that took place during mawe fermentation lead to a final population comprising Saccharomyces cerevisiae, C. krusei and K. marxianus. The yeast populations dominating the fermentation of tchoukoutou were found to consist of S. cerevisiae, almost exclusively. Other yeast species were detected in the early stages of fermentation. For the predominant species a succession of biotypes was demonstrated by rep-PCR for the fermentation of both products. The direct analysis at DNA and RNA levels in the case of mawe did not reveal any other species except those already identified by culture-based analysis. On the other hand, for tchoukoutou, four species were identified that were not detected by the culture-based approach. The spontaneous fermentation of mawe and tchoukoutou in the end were dominated by a few autochthonous species. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2013, Vol 165, Issue 2, p. 200-207
Yeasts; Fermented foods; Culture-dependent and -independent analysis; Microbial successions; Biotypes