Uusitupa, M2; Hermansen, Kjeld3; Savolainen, M J4; Schwab, U5; Kolehmainen, M6; Brader, Lea Johanne3; Mortensen, L S3; Cloetens, L7; Johansson-Persson, A7; Önning, G7; Landin-Olsson, M8; Herzig, K-H9; Hukkanen, J4; Rosqvist, F10; Iggman, D11; Paananen, J6; Pulkki, K J12; Siloaho, M6; Dragsted, Lars Ove23; Barri, T14; Overvad, K15; Bach Knudsen, K E16; Hedemann, Mette Skou16; Arner, P17; Dahlman, I17; Borge, G I A18; Baardseth, P18; Ulven, S M19; Gunnarsdottir, I20; Jónsdóttir, Sigrun20; Thorsdottir, I20; Orešic, M21; Poutanen, K S6; Risérus, U10; Åkesson, B22
1 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland & Research Unit, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio3 Department of Medicine and Endocrinology MEA, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus4 Institute of Clinical Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Oulu, Oulu5 Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Kuopio University Hospital, Kuopio6 Institute of Public Health and Clinical Nutrition, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio7 Biomedical Nutrition, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University, Lund8 Department of Endocrinology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund9 Institute of Biomedicine and Biocenter of Oulu, University of Oulu, Oulu10 Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism, Uppsala University, Uppsala11 Center for Clinical Research Dalarna, Falun12 Eastern Finland Laboratory Centre and Department of Clinical Chemistry, University of Eastern Finland, Kuopio13 Preventive and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet14 Institut for Idræt og Ernæring, Københavns Universitet15 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus16 Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus17 Department of Medicine (H7), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm18 Nofima, Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Agriculture Research, Ås19 Department of Health, Nutrition and Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo20 Unit for Nutrition Research, University of Iceland & Landspitali - The National University Hospital of Iceland, Reykjavik21 VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo22 Biomedical Nutrition, Pure and Applied Biochemistry, Lund University & Department of Clinical Nutrition, Skåne University Hospital, Lund23 Preventive and Clinical Nutrition, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
BACKGROUND: Different healthy food patterns may modify cardiometabolic risk. We investigated the effects of an isocaloric healthy Nordic diet on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, blood pressure and inflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a randomized dietary study lasting for 18-24 weeks in individuals with features of metabolic syndrome (mean age 55 years, BMI 31.6 kg m-2 , 67% women). Altogether 309 individuals were screened, 200 started the intervention after 4-week run-in period, and 96 (proportion of dropouts 7.9%) and 70 individuals (dropouts 27%) completed the study, in the Healthy diet and Control diet groups, respectively. Healthy diet included whole-grain products, berries, fruits and vegetables, rapeseed oil, three fish meals per week and low-fat dairy products. An average Nordic diet served as a Control diet. Compliance was monitored by repeated 4-day food diaries and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids. RESULTS: Body weight remained stable, and no significant changes were observed in insulin sensitivity or blood pressure. Significant changes between the groups were found in non-HDL cholesterol (-0.18, mmol L-1 95% CI -0.35; -0.01, P = 0.04), LDL to HDL cholesterol (-0.15, -0.28; -0.00, P = 0.046) and apolipoprotein B to apolipoprotein A1 ratios (-0.04, -0.07; -0.00, P = 0.025) favouring the Healthy diet. IL-1 Ra increased during the Control diet (difference -84, -133; -37 ng L-1 , P = 0.00053). Intakes of saturated fats (E%, beta estimate 4.28, 0.02; 8.53, P = 0.049) and magnesium (mg, -0.23, -0.41; -0.05, P = 0.012) were associated with IL-1 Ra. CONCLUSIONS: Healthy Nordic diet improved lipid profile and had a beneficial effect on low-grade inflammation.
Journal of Internal Medicine, 2013, Vol 274, Issue 1, p. 52-66