Traditionally it has been difficult to verify mesoscale model wind predictions against observations in the planetary boundary layer (PBL). Here we used measurements from a wind lidar to study the PBL up to 800 m above the surface at a flat coastal site in Denmark during a one month period in autumn.We ran theWeather Research and Forecasting numerical model with two different roughness descriptions over land, two different synoptic forcings and two different PBL schemes at two vertical resolutions and evaluated the wind profile against observations from the wind lidar. The simulated wind profile did not have enough vertical shear in the lower part of the PBL and also had a negative bias higher up in the boundary layer. Near the surface the internal boundary layer and the surface roughness influenced the wind speed,while higher up itwas only influenced by the choice ofPBLscheme and the synoptic forcing. By replacing the roughness value for the land-use category in the model with a more representative mesoscale roughness, the observed bias in friction velocity was reduced. A higher-order PBL scheme simulated the wind profile from the west with a lower wind-speed bias at the top of the PBL. For easterly winds low-level jets contributed to a negative wind-speed bias around 300 m and were better simulated by the first-order scheme. In all simulations, the wind-profile shape, wind speed and turbulent fluxes were not improved when a higher vertical resolution or different synoptic forcing were used.
Boundary-layer Meteorology, 2013, Vol 147
Internal boundary layer; Low-level jet; Weather Research and Forecasting; Wind lidar; Wind profile