Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine1; Nakai, Hiroyuki3; Hemmingsen, Lene1; Andersen, Joakim Mark3; Lahtinen, Sampo J9; Rasmussen, Louise Enggaard5; Abou Hachem, Maher3; Petersen, Bent O.10; Duus, Jens Øllgaard11; Meyer, Anne S.5; Licht, Tine Rask12; Svensson, Birte3
1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Division of Food Microbiology, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark4 Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark5 Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark6 Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark7 Organic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Denmark8 Center for BioProcess Engineering, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark9 DuPont Nutrition and Health10 Carlsberg Laboratory11 Center for Hyperpolarization in Magnetic Resonance, Center, Technical University of Denmark12 Copenhagen Center for Health Technology, Center, Technical University of Denmark
The present study aimed at examining oligosaccharides (OS) for potential stimulation of probiotic bacteria. Nineteen structurally well-defined candidate OS covering groups of β-glucosides, α-glucosides and α-galactosides with degree of polymerization 2-4 were prepared in >100 mg amounts by chemoenzymatic synthesis (i.e. reverse phosphorolysis or transglycosylation). Fourteen of the OS are not naturally occurring and five (β-d-glucosyl-fructose, β-d-glucosyl-xylitol, α-glucosyl-(1,4)-d-mannose, α-glucosyl-(1,4)-d-xylose; α-glucosyl-(1,4)-l-fucose) have recently been synthesized for the first time. These OS have not been previously tested for effects of bacterial growth and here the ability of all 19 OS to support growth of four gastrointestinal bacteria: three probiotic bacteria Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium longum, and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and one commensal bacterium, Bacteroides vulgatus has been evaluated in monocultures. The disaccharides β-d-glucosyl-xylitol and β-d-glucosyl-(1,4)-xylose noticeably stimulated growth yields of L. acidophilus NCFM, and additionally, β-d-glucosyl-(1,4)-xylose stimulated B. longum Bl-05. α-Glucosyl-(1,4)-glucosamine and α-glucosyl-(1,4)-N-acetyl-glucosamine enhanced the growth rate of B. animalis subsp. lactis and B. longum Bl-05, whereas L. acidophilus NCFM and Bac. vulgatus did not grow on these OS. α-Galactosyl-(1,6)-α-galactosyl-(1,6)-glucose advanced the growth rate of B. animalis subsp. lactis and L. acidophilus NCFM. Thus several of the structurally well-defined OS supported growth of beneficial gut bacteria. This reflects a broad specificity of their sugar transporters for OS, including specificity for non-naturally occurring OS, hence showing promise for design of novel prebiotics.
Food and Function, 2013, Vol 4, Issue 5, p. 784-793