Agbobatinkpo, Pélagie B.5; Thorsen, Line6; Nielsen, Dennis Sandris7; Azokpota, Paulin5; Akissoe, Noèl5; Hounhouigan, Joseph D.5; Jakobsen, Mogens4
1 Microbiology and Fermentation, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 University of Abomey-Calavi3 Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet4 Study board of History of Art, Faculty of Humanities, Københavns Universitet5 University of Abomey-Calavi6 Food Microbiology, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet7 Microbiology and Fermentation, Department of Food Science, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
Yanyanku and Ikpiru made by the fermentation of Malcavene bean (Hibiscus sabdariffa) are used as functional additives for Parkia biglobosa seed fermentations in Benin. A total of 355 aerobic endospore-forming bacteria (AEFB) isolated from Yanyanku and Ikpiru produced in northern and southern Benin were identified using phenotypic and genotypic methods, including GTG5-PCR, M13-PCR, 16S rRNA, gyrA and gyrB gene sequencing. Generally, the same 5-6 species of the genus Bacillus predominated: Bacillus subtilis (17-41% of isolates), Bacillus cereus (8-39%), Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (9-22%), Bacillus licheniformis (3-26%), Bacillus safensis (8-19%) and Bacillus altitudinis (0-19%). Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus flexus, and Bacillus circulans (0-2%), and species of the genera Lysinibacillus (0-14%), Paenibacillus (0-13%), Brevibacillus (0-4%), and Aneurinibacillus (0-3%) occurred sporadically. The diarrheal toxin encoding genes cytK-1, cytK-2, hblA, hblC, and hblD were present in 0%, 91% 15%, 34% and 35% of B. cereus isolates, respectively. 9% of them harbored the emetic toxin genetic determinant, cesB. This study is the first to identify the AEFB of Yanyanku and Ikpiru to species level and perform a safety evaluation based on toxin gene detections. We further suggest, that the gyrA gene can be used for differentiating the closely related species Bacillus pumilus and B. safensis.
International Journal of Food Microbiology, 2013, Vol 163, Issue 2-3, p. 231-238