1 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet2 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais3 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet4 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro5 Universidade Federal do Para6 University of Cambridge7 Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais8 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet9 Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro10 Universidade Federal do Para11 University of Cambridge12 Natural History Museum of Denmark, Natural History Museum of Denmark, Faculty of Science, Københavns Universitet
There is a consensus that modern humans arrived in the Americas 15,000-20,000 y ago during the Late Pleistocene, most probably from northeast Asia through Beringia. However, there is still debate about the time of entry and number of migratory waves, including apparent inconsistencies between genetic and morphological data on Paleoa-mericans. Here we report the identification of mitochondrial sequences belonging to haplogroups characteristic of Polynesians in DNA extracted from ancient skulls of the now extinct Botocudo Indians from Brazil. The identification of these two Polynesian haplogroups was confirmed in independent replications in Brazil and Denmark, ensuring reliability of the data. Parallel analysis of 12 other Botocudo individuals yielded only the well-known Amerindian mtDNA hap-logroup C1. Potential scenarios to try to help understand these results are presented and discussed. The findings of this study may be relevant for the understanding of the pre-Columbian and/or post-Columbian peopling of the Americas.
Pnas Early Edition, 2013, Vol 110, Issue 16, p. 6465-6469