The interaction between muscle and bone is complex. The aim of this study was to investigate if variations in the muscle genes myostatin (MSTN), its receptor (ACVR2B), myogenin (MYOG), and myoD1 (MYOD1) were associated with fracture risk, bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and lean body mass. We analyzed two independent cohorts: the Danish Osteoporosis Prevention Study (DOPS), comprising 2,016 perimenopausal women treated with hormone therapy or not and followed for 10 years, and the Odense Androgen Study (OAS), a cross-sectional, population-based study on 783 men aged 20-29 years. Nine tag SNPs in the four genes were investigated. In the DOPS, individuals homozygous for the variant allele of the MSTN SNP rs7570532 had an increased risk of any osteoporotic fracture, with an HR of 1.82 (95 % CI 1.15-2.90, p = 0.01), and of nonvertebral osteoporotic fracture, with an HR of 2.02 (95 % CI 1.20-3.41, p = 0.01). The same allele was associated with increased bone loss (BMC) at the total hip of 4.1 versus 0.5 % in individuals either heterozygous or homozygous for the common allele (p = 0.006), a reduced 10-year growth in bone area at the total hip of 0.4 versus 2.2 and 2.3 % in individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the common allele, respectively (p = 0.01), and a nonsignificantly increased 10-year loss of total-hip BMD of 4.4 versus 2.7 and 2.9 % in individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the common allele, respectively (p = 0.08). This study is the first to demonstrate an association between a variant in MSTN and fracture risk and bone loss. Further studies are needed to confirm the findings.
Calcified Tissue International, 2013, Vol 92, Issue 5, p. 467-476
Activin Receptors, Type II; Adult; Bone Density; Bone and Bones; Cell Proliferation; Cohort Studies; Denmark; Densitometry; European Continental Ancestry Group; Female; Femur; Fractures, Bone; Genotype; Haplotypes; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Muscles; MyoD Protein; Myogenin; Myostatin; Osteoporotic Fractures; Phenotype; Polymorphism, Genetic; Prospective Studies; Young Adult