The association between pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and diabetes mellitus (DM) has been previously attracted much attention. Diabetes alters immunity to tuberculosis, leading to more frequent treatment failure in TB patients with DM. Moreover, TB and DM often coincide with micronutrients deficiencies, such as retinol and vitamin D, which are especially important to immunity of the body and may influence pancreas β-cell function. However, the effects of retinol and vitamin D supplementation in active TB patients with diabetes on treatment outcomes, immune and nutrition state are still uncertain. We are conducting a randomized controlled trial of vitamin A and/or D in active PTB patients with DM in a network of 4 TB treatment clinics to determine whether the supplementation could improve the outcome in the patients.