1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Division of Industrial Food Research, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 Enzyme and Protein Chemistry, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark4 National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark5 Technical University of Denmark6 Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark
Immune modulators are compounds capable of interacting with the immune system and thereby modifying the host response. This interaction enhances non-specific defense mechanisms, improving health and promoting survival. are glucose polysaccharides present in sea weed, bacteria, fungi and cereal but not in animals. are commonly used as immune modulators, but the mechanisms through which the modulation is achieved remains to be understood. Wound healing and tissue regeneration are essential mechanisms to ensure the survival and health of any organism. Studies from the mammalian systems have shown the importance of fibroblasts, macrophages, reactive oxygen species (especially hydrogen peroxide) and certain cytokines during wound healing processes. In fish however, only a few studies have been devoted tissue regeneration and modulation of cell proliferation during wound healing, even though mechanical injury as well as numerous diseases can severely damage fish tissues. The work presented examines for the first time the immunomodulatory effects of during wound healing processes in fish. Experiments have been conducted both in vivo and in vitro and results clearly show the immunomodulatory effects of during the wound healing process. The wound healing process was monitored using image analysis, real time PCR and proteomics. The study showed that treatment enhanced wound closure in fish, probably due to the enhancement of a localized inflammatory response. The modulatory effect of on wound healing seems to be orchestrated by the immune system, since as direct effect on fibroblast proliferation were observed. Furthermore, production of ROS may influence the fate of tissue regeneration, and differences in ROS patterns could be one of the possible ways in which fish alert the immune system to drive the immune response towards pathogen eradication or tissue repair.