A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced from refined wheat flour made iso-DF by adding Vitacel. The pigs were fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and the portal vein, which allow studying the enrichment of nutrient in plasma after passing the gastrointestinal tract. LC–MS measurements showed the presence of oxygenated fatty acids (oxylipins) in the plasma of pigs and with discrimination between whole grain wheat versus wheat aleurone and refined flour. The oxylipin-marker of this difference was identified as a mixture of 13-hydroxy-9,11-octadecadienoic and 9-hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (13-HODE and 9-HODE). Similar oxylipins were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used as novel lipid candidate biomarkers of whole grain intake versus aleurone. Principal component analysis discriminated between venous and arterial plasma samples. We identified glycine conjugated and unconjugated bile acids to be responsible for this discrimination. Moreover we discovered the existence of unsaturated bile acid in the plasma of pigs.
Metabolomics, 2013, Vol 9, Issue 2, p. 464-479
Dietary fiber; Metabolomics; Oxylipins; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; 13-HODE and 9-HODE; Unsaturated bile acids