Mycobacterium simiae is a slow-growing mycobacteria that in rare cases can cause chronic pulmonary infection. We report the first case of lung transplantation in a patient with active M simiae infection at the time of transplantation. A 56-year-old immunocompetent nonsmoking woman underwent bilateral lung transplantation for end-stage idiopathic bronchiectasis and chronic M simiae infection. The disease proved manageable on a regimen of clarithromycin, moxifloxacin, and cotrimoxazole with a successful outcome 1-year posttransplantation. There is increasing evidence that nontuberculous mycobacterium infection should no longer be an absolute contraindication for lung transplantation.
Transplantation Proceedings, 2013, Vol 45, Issue 2, p. 803-805