1 Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet2 Section of Microbiology, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet3 CiToxLab, Scantox A/S4 Institute of Biomedical Engineering, National Research Council, Padova, Italy.5 LUKKET: 2012 Afd f. komparativ medicin, LUKKET: 2012 Afdeling for Eksperimentel Medicin, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet6 Novo Nordisk A/S7 Section of Microbiology, Department of Veterinary Disease Biology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Københavns Universitet8 LUKKET: 2012 Afd f. komparativ medicin, LUKKET: 2012 Afdeling for Eksperimentel Medicin, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Københavns Universitet
Influence of Diet and Gender
Objective: Gender and sex hormones influence the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome in humans and Gottingen minipigs. The aim of this study was to investigate possible gender differences in the metabolic response to a high energy diet in young Gottingen minipigs as a model of childhood/adolescent obesity. Design and Methods: Nine-week-old male and female Gottingen minipigs were fed restrictedly on either a low energy diet (LED) or a high energy diet (HED) for 4 months (n = 5-7). Parameters of interest were fat percentage, visceral fat mass, plasma lipids and glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function measured by oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Results: At 11 to 12 weeks of age, after 2 weeks diet feeding, both genders on HED had increased fat percentage, glucose intolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, and increased plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs). There was no gender difference in body weight (BW) or fat percentage, but males had lower glucose tolerance than females. After 3.5 to 4 months on the diets, the pigs on HED had increased BW, fat percentage, and visceral fat mass and were more glucose intolerant and insulin resistant than pigs on LED. Also increases in plasma cholesterol and TG levels were observed in the pigs on HED. Females had higher fat percentage and more visceral fat, were more insulin resistant, and had a more unfavorable lipid profile compared with males independent of diet. Conclusion: In conclusion, the young Gottingen minipig, and especially the female gender, seems to be a potential model for diet induced childhood/adolescent obesity and metabolic syndrome.