Dike resilience against wave overtopping has gained more and more attention in recent years due to the effect of expected future climate changes. The overtopping flow velocities and flow depths on dikes have recently been studied in 2D small-scale experiments. This has led to semi-empirical formulae for the estimation of flow depths and flow velocities across a dike. The results have been coupled to the actual erosion of the landward dike slope determined by full-scale 2D tests using the so-called “Overtopping Simulator”. This paper describes the results from 96 small-scale tests carried out in a shallow water basin at Aalborg University to cover the so far unknown 3D effects from oblique long-crested and short-crested waves. Based on results from the laboratory tests, expansions are proposed to the existing 2D formulae so as to cover oblique and short-crested waves. The wave obliquity is seen to significantly reduce the overtopping flow velocities and flow depths on especially the landward slope of a sea dike. Moreover, the tests showed that the average flow directions on the dike crest from oblique long-crested and short-crested waves correspond approximately to the incident wave direction. Flow depths and the squared flow velocities on the dike are concluded to be Rayleigh-distributed in case of both long-crested and short-crested waves for all considered incident wave obliquities. Findings in the present paper regarding the influence on flow parameters from more natural sea state, flow directions on the dike, and the statistical distribution of individual flow parameters are needed to obtain more realistic estimates of dike erosion caused by wave overtopping.
Coastal Engineering, 2013, Vol 76, Issue June 2013, p. 43-54
Physical Model Tests; Sea Dike; Flow Velocity; Flow Dept; Dike Resilience; Wave Overtopping; Short-Crested Waves; Wave Run-Up; Flow Depth