Public Health Risks of Enterobacterial Isolates Producing Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases or AmpC β-Lactamases in Food and Food-Producing Animals: An EU Perspective of Epidemiology, Analytical Methods, Risk Factors, and Control Options
1 National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark2 Division of Epidemiology and Microbial Genomics, National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark3 European Food Safety Authority4 Istituto Superiore di Sanita5 CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública6 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control7 Utrecht University8 Faculdade Farmácia Universidade Porto9 Université de Paris-Sud10 University of Bern11 Medical Products Agency12 European Medicines Agency13 Universidad de La Rioja14 Health Protection Agency15 Istituto Superiore di Sanita16 Universidad de La Rioja
The blaESBL and blaAmpC genes are spread by plasmid-mediated integrons, insertion sequences, and transposons, some of which are homologous in food animals and humans. Cephalosporin usage in animal production is an important risk factor; restricting such use would be an effective control option.
Clinical Infectious Diseases, 2013, Vol 56, Issue 7, p. 1030-1037