1 Department of Innovation and Organizational Economics, Copenhagen Business School2 Imperial College Business School / Imperial College London3 Göteborgs Universitet4 Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan5 Universidad Politécnica de Valencia6 Universita di Bologna7 Università degli Studi di Torino8 Cambridge Judge Business School9 Universität Kassel10 Université de Strasbourg
A Review of the Literature on University–Industry Relations
A considerable body of work highlights the relevance of collaborative research, contract research, consulting and informal relationships for university–industry knowledge transfer. We present a systematic review of research on academic scientists’ involvement in these activities to which we refer as ‘academic engagement’. Apart from extracting findings that are generalisable across studies, we ask how academic engagement differs from commercialisation, defined as intellectual property creation and academic entrepreneurship. We identify the individual, organisational and institutional antecedents and consequences of academic engagement, and then compare these findings with the antecedents and consequences of commercialisation. Apart from being more widely practiced, academic engagement is distinct from commercialisation in that it is closely aligned with traditional academic research activities, and pursued by academics to access resources supporting their research agendas. We conclude by identifying future research needs, opportunities for methodological improvement and policy interventions.