The aim of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of long chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHADD) in the general Estonian population and among patients with symptoms suggestive of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) defects. We collected DNA from a cohort of 1,040 anonymous newborn blood spot samples. We screened these samples for the presence of the common c.1528G>C mutation in the HADHA gene. Based on the clinical suspicion of FAO defects, we screened suspected individuals since 2004 for the common c.1528G>C mutation in the HADHA gene and since 2008 in addition by tandem mass spectrometric analysis of plasma acylcarnitines. Our results showed that the carrier frequency of the c.1528G>C mutation in the Estonian population is high - 1:173. During the screening of symptomatic patients, we identified five LCHADD patients in four families. Three patients were retrospectively identified by molecular screening of the HADHA gene. One patient was homozygous for the c.1528G>C mutation in the HADHA gene, and two siblings were compound heterozygotes with HADHA genotype c.[1528G>C]+[1690-2A>G]. Among patients tested using acylcarnitine profiling, we identified two cases with an abnormal acylcarnitine profile typical to LCHADD. Molecular analysis showed homozygosity for c.1528G>C mutation. Based on a carrier frequency of 1:173 (95% Confidence Interval 1:76-1:454) and taking into account that the c.1528G>C mutation makes up 87.5% of disease alleles in Estonian LCHADD patients, the estimated prevalence of LCHADD in Estonia would be 1: 91,700.