Species classified in Penicillium sect. Chrysogena are primary soil-borne and the most well-known members are P. chrysogenum and P. nalgiovense. Penicillium chrysogenum has received much attention because of its role in the production on penicillin and as a contaminant of indoor environments and various food and feedstuffs. Another biotechnologically important species is P. nalgiovense, which is used as a fungal starter culture for the production of fermented meat products. Previous taxonomic studies often had conflicting species circumscriptions. Here, we present a multigene analysis, combined with phenotypic characters and extrolite data, demonstrating that sect. Chrysogena consists of 18 species. Six of these are newly described here (P. allii-sativi, P. desertorum, P. goetzii, P. halotolerans, P. tardochrysogenum, P. vanluykii) and P. lanoscoeruleum was found to be an older name for P. aethiopicum. Each species produces a unique extrolite profile. The species share phenotypic characters, such as good growth on CYA supplemented with 5 % NaCl, ter- or quarterverticillate branched conidiophores and short, ampulliform phialides (<9 mu m). Conidial colours, production of ascomata and ascospores, shape and ornamentation of conidia and growth rates on other agar media are valuable for species identification. Eight species (P. allii-sativi, P. chrysogenum, P. dipodomyis, P. flavigenum, P. nalgiovense, P. rubens, P. tardochrysogenum and P. vanluykii) produce penicillin in culture.
Persoonia, 2012, Vol 29, p. 78-100
Fungi Plantae (Fungi, Microorganisms, Nonvascular Plants, Plants) - Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes [15500*] Penicillium genus Penicillium chrysogenum species contaminant Penicillium nalgiovense species contaminant Penicillium dipodomyis species Chrysogena section Penicillium allii-sativi species new species description Penicillium desertorum species new species description Penicillium goetzii species new species description Penicillium halotolerans species new species description Penicillium tardochrysogenum species new species description Penicillium vanluykii species new species description Penicillium lanoscoeruleum species basionym Penicillium aethiopicum species synosym Penicillium flavigenum species Penicillium rubens species; Penicillium beta-tubulin gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes]; Penicillium calmodulin gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes]; Penicillium FacA gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes] Penicillium acetyl-CoA ligase gene; Penicillium ITS gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes]; Penicillium ParA gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes] Penicillium phosphoadenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase gene; Penicillium RPB1 gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes]; Penicillium RPB2 gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes]; Penicillium TrpC gene [Fungi Imperfecti or Deuteromycetes] Penicillium anthranilate synthase multifunctional protein gene; penicillin 1406-05-9; 00504, General biology - Taxonomy, nomenclature and terminology; 03502, Genetics - General; 03504, Genetics - Plant; 03509, Genetics - Population genetics; 10064, Biochemistry studies - Proteins, peptides and amino acids; 32500, Tissue culture, apparatus, methods and media; 50506, Botany: general and systematic - Fungi; 51000, Morphology, anatomy and embryology of plants; Molecular Genetics; Population Genetics; Systematics and Taxonomy; fermented meat product meat product; GenBank sequence data; haplotype diversity; species identification; synonymy; Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics; Population Studies; ampulliform phialide; conidium; cell culture laboratory techniques, culturing techniques; phylogenetic analysis mathematical and computer techniques