Yilmaz, N.3; Houbraken, J.3; Hoekstra, E. S.4; Frisvad, Jens Christian1; Visagie, C. M.6; Samson, Ramona3
1 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark2 Center for Microbial Biotechnology, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark3 CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre4 unknown5 University of Stellenbosch6 University of Stellenbosch
Taxa of the Talaromyces purpurogenus complex were studied using a polyphasic approach. ITS barcodes were used to show relationships between species of the T. purpurogenus complex and other Talaromyces species. RPB1, RPB2, beta-tubulin and calmodulin sequences were used to delimit phylogenetic species in the complex. These data, combined with phenotypic characters, showed that the complex contains four species: T. purpurogenus, T. ruber comb. nov. and two new species T. amestolkiae sp. nov. and T. stollii sp. nov. The latter three species belong to the same clade and T. purpurogenus is located in a phylogenetic distant clade. The four species all share similar conidiophore morphologies, but can be distinguished by macromorphological characters. Talaromyces ruber has a very distinct colony texture on malt extract agar (MEA), produces bright yellow and red mycelium on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES) and does not produce acid on creatine sucrose agar (CREA). In contrast, T. amestolkiae and T. stollii produce acid on CREA. These two species can be differentiated by the slower growth rate of T. amestolkiae on CYA incubated at 36 degrees C. Furthermore, T. stollii produces soft synnemata-like structures in the centre of colonies on most media. Extrolite analysis confirms the distinction of four species in the T. purpurogenus complex. The red diffusing pigment in T. purpurogenus is a mixture of the azaphilone extrolites also found in Monascus species, including N-glutarylrubropunctamine and rubropunctatin. Talaromyces purpurogenus produced four different kinds of mycotoxins: rubratoxins, luteoskyrin, spiculisporic acid and rugulovasins and these mycotoxins were not detected in the other three species.
Persoonia, 2012, Vol 29, p. 39-54
GenBank sequence data; species complex revision; species phylogeny; speciescharacterization; Fungi Plantae (Fungi, Microorganisms, Nonvascular Plants, Plants) - Ascomycetes [15100*] Monascus genus Talaromyces purpurogenus species Talaromyces ruber species new combination description Talaromyces amestolkiae species new species description Talaromyces stollii species new species description; Talaromyces beta-tubulin gene [Ascomycetes]; Talaromyces calmodulin gene [Ascomycetes]; Talaromyces ITS gene [Ascomycetes]; Talaromyces purpurogenus ITS gene [Ascomycetes]; Talaromyces RPB1 gene [Ascomycetes]; Talaromyces RPB2 gene [Ascomycetes]; luteoskyrin 21884-44-6 toxin, mycotoxin; N-glutarylrubropunctamine; rubratoxins toxin, mycotoxin; rubropunctatin 514-67-0; rugulovasins toxin, mycotoxin; spiculisporic acid toxin, mycotoxin; 00504, General biology - Taxonomy, nomenclature and terminology; 03504, Genetics - Plant; 03509, Genetics - Population genetics; 10062, Biochemistry studies - Nucleic acids, purines and pyrimidines; 22501, Toxicology - General and methods; 50506, Botany: general and systematic - Fungi; 51000, Morphology, anatomy and embryology of plants; Population Studies; creatine sucrose agar laboratory equipment; gene sequencing laboratory techniques, genetic techniques; malt extract agar laboratory equipment; phylogenetic analysis mathematical and computer techniques; yeast extract sucrose agar laboratory equipment; Population Genetics; Systematics and Taxonomy