The European climate change strategy intends to encourage the erection of low-carbon buildings and the upgrading of existing buildings to low-carbon level. At the same time, it is an EU vision to maximise the use of renewable energy resources. In this strategy, small-scale wood-burning is an overlooked source for heating. A wood-burning stove is considered low-carbon technology since its fuel is based on local residual biomass. A ﬁeld study investigating how modern wood-burning stoves operated in modern single-family houses showed that intermittent heat supply occasionally conﬂicted with the primary heating system and that chimney exhaust occasionally conﬂicted with the ventilation system causing overheating and particles in the indoor environment. Nonetheless, most of the wood-burning stoves contributed considerably to the total heating. On this background, it was concluded that better combustion technology and automatics, controlling the interplay between stove and house, can make wood-burning stoves suitable for low-carbon dwellings and meet the remaining heat demand during the coldest period. It was further concluded that new guidelines need to be elaborated about how to install and operate new stoves. For instance, lighting a modern stove requires far more skill that the scout-ﬁre skill that was necessary for lighting an old stove.