Background:Clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors has been found in children as young as 9 years of age. However, the stability of this clustering over the course of childhood has yet to be determined. The purpose of this study was to determine tracking of clustered CVD risk from young school-age through adolescence and examine differences in tracking between levels of overweight/obesity and cardiorespiratory fitness (VO(2peak)).Methods:Six year-old children (n = 434) were measured three times in 7 years. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and VO(2peak) were measured. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for CVD risk factors. A clustered risk-score (z-score) was constructed by adding sex-specific z-scores for blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR), triglyceride, skinfolds and negative values of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLc) and VO(2peak).Results:Significant tracking coefficients were found between clustered z-score at all time intervals (r = 0.514, 0.559 and 0.381 between ages 6 to 9, 9 to 13 and 6 to 13 years, respectively, all P< 0.0001). Tracking was higher for low-fit children, whereas no clear pattern was found for different levels of body-fat.Conclusions:We found that clustered z-score is a fairly stable characteristic through childhood. Implementation of preventive strategies could therefore start at early school-age.
Pediatric Research, 2013, Vol 73, Issue 2, p. 245-249