Purpose – The rise of CSR followed a demand for CSR standards and guidelines. In a sector already characterized by a large number of standards, the authors seek to ask what CSR schemes apply to agribusiness, and how they can be systematically compared and analysed. Design/methodology/approach – Following a deductive-inductive approach the authors develop a model to compare and analyse CSR schemes based on existing studies and on coding qualitative data on 216 CSR schemes. Findings – The authors confirm that CSR standards and guidelines have entered agribusiness and identify a complex landscape of schemes that can be categorized on focus areas, scales, mechanisms, origins, types and commitment levels. Research limitations/implications – The findings contribute to conceptual and empirical research on existing models to compare and analyse CSR standards. Sampling technique and depth of analysis limit this research, but the authors offer insights into patterns of CSR standard development in agribusiness and point to important research avenues. Practical implications – These findings can help agribusiness managers to select and analyse CSR standards and other forms of CSR guidance. Social implications – Standard and guidance setting activities can be expected to have real-life effects on CSR outcomes. These effects need to be better understood by policy makers and stakeholders. The authors' meta-analysis contributes to further research on who or what influences standard development. Originality/value – Models to compare CSR schemes are rare and often focus on a small number of cases. The authors provide decision makers and researchers with insights into structural conditions through a meta-analysis of a larger number of CSR schemes.
British Food Journal, 2013, Vol 115, Issue 1, p. 47-74