Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht1; Zortea, R.3; Piketty, A.4; Rodriguez Vega, S.5; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus1
1 Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark2 Urban Water Engineering, Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark3 Polytechnic University of Turin4 National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse5 Complutense University
Medium pressure UV is used for controlling the concentration of combined chlorine (chloramines) in many public swimming pools. Little is known about the fate of other disinfection by-products (DBPs) in UV treatment. Photolysis by medium pressure UV treatment was investigated for 12 DBPs reported to be found in swimming pool water: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, bromoform, dichloroacetonitrile, bromochloroacetonitrile, dibromoacetronitrile, trichloroacetonitrile, trichloronitromethane, dichloropropanone, trichloropropanone, and chloral hydrate. First order photolysis constants ranged 26-fold from 0.020 min− 1 for chloroform to 0.523 min− 1 for trichloronitromethane. The rate constants generally increased with bromine substitution. Using the UV removal of combined chlorine as an actinometer, the rate constants were recalculated to actual treatment doses of UV applied in a swimming pool. In an investigated public pool the UV dose was equivalent to an applied electrical energy of 1.34 kWh m− 3 d− 1 and the UV dose required to removed 90% of trichloronitromethane was 0.4 kWh m− 3 d− 1, while 2.6 kWh m− 3 d− 1 was required for chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes ranged from 0.6 to 3.1 kWh m− 3 d− 1. It was predicted thus that a beneficial side-effect of applying UV for removing combined chlorine from the pool water could be a significant removal of trichloronitromethane, chloral hydrate and the bromine containing haloacetonitriles and trihalomethanes.