A 3D methodology to quantify the effect of forests on the mean wind flow field is presented. The methodology is based on the treatment of forest raw data of light detection and ranging (LiDAR) scans, and a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method based on a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RaNS) approach using the k−e turbulence model with a corresponding canopy model. The example site investigated is a forest edge located on the Falster island in Denmark, where a measurement campaign was conducted. The LiDAR scans are used in order to obtain the forest heights, which served as input to the numerical CFD model. A sensitivity analysis with regards to the resolution of the structured forest height grid obtained from the implemented digital elevation model (DEM) was carried out. CFD calculations were conducted with the forest height grid taken as input and the complete methodology results are finally briefly compared to the wind measurements of the site with regards to the calculated wind field prediction accuracy.
Wind turbine siting; Computational fluid dynamics; Forest canopy flow; Light detection and ranging; Digital elevation model