BACKGROUND: Ciclosporin is used as an immunosuppressant in current clinical practice but recent research implies novel indications for the drug, such as neuro- and cardioprotection. The intravenous formulation currently on the market, Sandimmune(®) Injection (Sandimmune(®)), uses Cremophor(®) EL as emulsifying excipient. Cremophor(®) EL is known to cause hypersensitivity reactions in some patients, ranging from skin reactions to potentially fatal anaphylactic shock. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to assess if CicloMulsion(®), a Cremophor(®) EL-free lipid emulsion of ciclosporin for intravenous administration, is bioequivalent to Sandimmune(®), and the secondary objective was to compare the tolerability profiles of the two preparations. METHODS: This was a single-centre, open-label, subject-blind, laboratory-blind, single-dose, randomized, two-treatment, two-period, two-sequence crossover study of the pharmacokinetics of two formulations of intravenous ciclosporin. Fifty-two healthy volunteer subjects were administered 5 mg/kg of each of the two formulations of ciclosporin as a 4-h intravenous infusion. The last blood sample was acquired 48 h after the end of the infusion. Bioequivalence assessments according to current guidelines were performed. RESULTS: The geometric mean ratios for CicloMulsion(®)/Sandimmune(®) (90 % confidence interval [CI]) were 0.90 (0.88, 0.92) for AUC(0-last) (area under the blood concentration-time curve from time zero to time of last measurable concentration) and 0.95 (0.92, 0.97) for C(max) (maximum blood concentration). For all additional variables analysed, the 90 % CIs were also within the accepted bioequivalence range of 0.80-1.25. One anaphylactoid and one anaphylactic reaction, both classified as serious adverse events, were reported after treatment with Sandimmune(®). No serious adverse events were recorded after treatment with CicloMulsion(®). CONCLUSION: We have assessed the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a new Cremophor(®) EL-free lipid emulsion of ciclosporin, CicloMulsion(®), compared to Sandimmune(®). The proportion of adverse events was significantly higher for the Cremophor(®) EL-based product Sandimmune(®). We conclude that CicloMulsion(®) is bioequivalent to Sandimmune(®) and exhibits fewer adverse reactions.
Clinical Drug Investigation, 2013, Vol 33, Issue 1, p. 25-34
Adolescent; Adult; Area Under Curve; Biological Availability; Chemistry, Pharmaceutical; Cross-Over Studies; Cyclosporine; Emulsifying Agents; Excipients; Fat Emulsions, Intravenous; Female; Glycerol; Half-Life; Humans; Immunosuppressive Agents; Infusions, Intravenous; Male; Metabolic Clearance Rate; Middle Aged; South Africa; Therapeutic Equivalency; Young Adult; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural