It is more than 10 years since the publication of the Benchmark Simulation Model No 1 (BSM1) manual (Copp, 2002). The main objective of BSM1 was creating a platform for benchmarking carbon and nitrogen removal strategies in activated sludge systems. The initial platform evolved into BSM1_LT and BSM2, which allowed the evaluation of monitoring and plant-wide control strategies, respectively. The fact that the BSM platforms have resulted in 300+ publications demonstrates the interest for the tool within the scientific community. In this paper, an extension of the BSM2 is proposed. This extension aims at facilitating simultaneous carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (P) removal process development and performance evaluation at a plant-wide level. The main motivation of the work is that numerous wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) pursue biological phosphorus removal as an alternative to chemical P removal based on precipitation using metal salts, such as Fe or Al. This paper identifies and discusses important issues that need to be addressed to upgrade the BSM2 to BSM2-P, for example: 1) new influent wastewater characteristics; 2) new (bio) chemical processes to account for; 3) modifications of the original BSM2 physical plant layout; 4) new/upgraded generic mathematical models; 5) model integration; 6) new control handles/sensors; and 7) new extended evaluation criteria. The paper covers and analyzes all these aspects in detail, identifying the main bottlenecks that need to be addressed and finally discusses the aspects where scientific consensus is required.
Modelling; Benchmarking; Phosphorus removal; Model-based evaluation; Multi-criteria decision making; Process control
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2012 IWA World Water Congress and Exhibition, 2012