Differentiation of haustoria on primary infection hyphae of the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis was studied in wheat seedlings with two-photon microscopy in combination with a classical staining technique. Our results showed a significant increase in the average haustorium size 22, 44, 68, 92 and 116 h after inoculation (hai). After 116 hai no significant change was observed until 336 hai. Haustorium morphology also changed significantly during the time of infection. Initially small spherical haustoria were seen, but as they grew the haustoria gradually became apically branched. At 22 hai all observed haustoria were spherical, but at 44 hai most haustoria had an irregular structure, and at 92 hai all observed haustoria appeared branched. Along with the changes of the haustorial body the haustorial neck changed from narrow and slender to having an expanded appearance with a rough and invaginated structure. The structural changes were similar in two susceptible wheat varieties, 514W and Cartago, although the mean haustorium size was larger in 514W than in Cartago at all intervals.